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A Toxics-Free Future

China Results


NGOs request on-line retailer, Taobao, to remove mercury-containing skin whitening products

呼吁淘宝网加强网店管理,清除危害公众和环境健康的产品

Letter公开信 | Products违规产品

Results at a Glance

Other Product Testing

Mercury in skin-lightening and freckle-removing products in China

Feature Story - 2012-04-10

In China, skin-lightening and freckle-removing products are popular products among women. Like the saying goes, “White skin can conceal 100 other defects in your appearance.” Unfortunately, an ingredient used to make skin white, can cause defects instead of concealing them. According to the World Health Organization, the inorganic mercury contained in some skin-lightening products can cause kidney damage, skin rashes, skin discoloration, scarring, anxiety, depression, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, and reduction of resistance to infections.1

In China, mercury is limited to 1ppm in skin-lightening and freckle-removing products due to concerns over exposure and harm to health. In this study, Green Beagle and IPEN collaborated with Chinese NGOs in 10 provinces to determine whether skin-lightening products containing high levels of mercury are available on the market in China. Products were purchased online and in stores and markets located in Beijing (Beijing Municipality), Chongqing (Sichuan Province), Dongguan (Guangdong Province), Harbin (Heilongjiang Province), Hefei (Anhui Province), Nanjing (Jiangsu Province), Lanzhou (Gansu Province), Panjin (Liaoning Province), Shanghai (Shanghai Municipality), and Tianjin (Tianjin Municipality).

Mercury was measured using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer (XRF) which was calibrated using laboratory measurements of products. The XRF device is routinely used by companies and government regulatory agencies for metals detection in food, consumer products and other media.

We found 112 products (23%) that violated the Chinese regulatory limit for mercury of 1 ppm. Mercury concentrations in products ranged from 18 ppm to nearly 44,000 ppm. The top five products contained mercury at concentrations ranging from 17,918 ppm to 43,988 ppm. These products should not be for sale on the Chinese market.

Skin-lightening products were also found that exceeded Chinese regulatory limits for arsenic (10 ppm) and lead (40 ppm). Forty-six products contained arsenic, lead, or both metals. Forty-four of the 46 products violated the Chinese regulatory limit for arsenic. Twenty products in this group exceeded the Chinese regulatory limit for lead (40 ppm) and 28 exceeded the ASEAN limit for lead (20 ppm). Twenty-three products contained all three metals; mercury, arsenic, and lead. The presence of more than one toxic metal in a product applied directly to the body increases the possibility of harm.

All of the products in the current study that violate the regulatory limit for mercury were readily available on the market in stores located in 10 cities in 10 different provinces. In addition, products containing high levels of mercury were available for purchase throughout the country from the popular on-line retailer, Taobao. None of the products we tested were labeled to indicate mercury, arsenic, or lead content.

To our knowledge, this is the largest publicly available investigation of mercury in skin-lightening and freckle-removing products in China.

Recommendations

FOR THE INDUSTRY:

  • Manufacturers and formulators should obey Chinese laws, immediately phase out mercury and other toxic chemicals, and shift to safer ingredients
  • Retailers should remove products violating Chinese law from sale. Products identified containing greater than 1 ppm mercury or 10 ppm arsenic or 40 ppm lead should be removed from store shelves and internet websites
  • Manufactures should actively generate and disclose the chemical content of skin-lightening products and other cosmetics as a condition for sale in China
  • Manufacturers should promote the design and development of safer cosmetic products using green design, safe natural materials, and green chemistry

FOR THE GOVERNMENT:

  • Issue an advisory that requires removal from sale all skin-lightening products identified containing greater than 1ppm mercury
  • Re-classify skin whitening products as cosmetics of specific use to bring them under greater regulatory control
  • Work with civil society organizations to conduct a continuing public information drive to educate local government officials, consumers and other stakeholders about the risks posed by mercury in cosmetics

FOR CONSUMERS:

  • The safest way for consumers to protect themselves is to accept their natural skin tone and avoid the use of skin-lightening products.
  • Support policies requiring the disclosure of chemical content as a condition for sale of cosmetic products

在中国,很多女性都梦想拥有雪白无瑕的肌肤。俗话说,“一白遮百丑”,足见白皮肤对于衡量美的重要性。美白、祛斑类化妆品在中国市场受到广泛的欢迎。

在一些美白、祛斑产品中,汞作为一种能使皮肤快速变白的成分被添加。然而,含汞的化妆品不仅不能掩饰人们皮肤的“缺陷”,反而会危害使用者的健康。根据世界卫生组织的资料显示,化妆品中的无机汞会造成肾功能损害、皮疹、皮肤变色、结疤、焦虑、抑郁症、精神病、周围神经病变、抗感染能力降低等i。为了保证消费者健康,中华人民共和国国家标准《化妆品卫生标准》(标准号:GB7916-87)要求化妆品内汞含量不能超过1ppm(含有机汞防腐剂的眼部化妆品除外,含乙酸铅的染发剂除外)。

2012年3月至4月期间,10家民间环保组织——达尔问自然求知社(北京)、重庆两江志愿服务发展中心(重庆)、东莞市绿色珠江环保促进中心(广州东莞)、上海绿洲生态保护交流中心(上海)、安徽绿满江淮环境发展中心(安徽合肥)、天津未来绿色青年领袖协会(天津)、绿色龙江(黑龙江哈尔滨)、江苏绿色之友(江苏南京)、绿色盘锦(辽宁盘锦)和绿驼铃(甘肃兰州)——与国际消除持久性有机污染物网络(IPEN)抽取了10个城市和网上商店的美白、祛斑类化妆品,利用手持X射线荧光分析仪(简称“XRF分析仪”)进行检测,以了解中国市场上的这两类化妆品中是否含有汞。该仪器被一些公司、政府管理部门、科研机构用于日常检测食品、消费品和其它物质如土壤、灰尘、合金、矿石等中的重金属含量。本次调查中,检测人员用已知浓度样品来标定XRF分析仪的系统误差,然后进行系统检测。

在所有抽检的产品中,有112个汞含量超过了国家标准1ppm,涉及美白和祛斑两类产品,汞含量从18ppm至近44,000ppm不等,占所有抽检产品数量的23%(具体产品明细见“附录一”)。汞含量最高的五个产品高达17918ppm至43988ppm。这些产品不应该在中国市场出现。

根据《化妆品卫生标准》(GB7916-87),化妆品中砷和铅的限值分别为10ppm和40ppm。在本次抽检的美白、祛斑化妆品中,部分产品的砷含量和铅含量超过了国家标准。附录2中所列46个产品都被检测出含有砷或铅,或两者。其中44个产品超过了国家标准对化妆品中砷含量的规定。20种产品超过了国家标准对化妆品中铅含量的规定。然而,东南亚国家联盟对化妆品中铅含量的规定为20ppm,参考这个标准,则有28个产品超标。23种样品被检出同时含有三种重金属,汞、砷和铅。在同一个产品中含有多种有毒重金属,对使用者的健康带来更大的风险。

本次调查中检测到重金属含量超标的产品,涉及北京市、上海市、重庆市、天津市、辽宁省盘锦市、黑龙江省哈尔滨市、江苏省南京市、安徽省合肥市、广东省东莞市和甘肃省兰州市10个省或直辖市的共10个城市。从淘宝网上购得的重金属超标产品则可能销往全国各地。

据我们所知,这是在中国最大的一个公开的针对美白、祛斑化妆品中汞含量的调查

建议:

1、化妆品行业:

  • 化妆品制造商和配方研究人员应立即停止在化妆品中添加含有汞及其它有毒重金属和化学品,以安全的替代品替代。
  • 化妆品零售商应停止销售含有违反国家规定的产品。经本次调查查明,汞含量超过1ppm或砷含量超过10ppm或铅含量超过40ppm的化妆品,应立即从实体店和网店中下架。
  • 化妆品制造商应依照相关法律和标准,主动在产品包装上标明产品所含成分。
  • 化妆品制造商应设计和生产更为绿色环保和安全的产品,使用绿色、天然和安全的原料,以保护公众健康和环境。

2、政府部门:

  • 发布公告,要求检出汞含量1ppm以上的美白、祛斑化妆品全部下架。
  • 将美白类化妆品列入特殊用途化妆品,加强监管。
  • 与民间组织合作,就化妆品中的汞对公众健康带来的风险这一议题进行持续的信息公开,以提高政府官员、消费者和其他利益相关方的意识。

3、消费者:

  • 接受自己自然的肤色,不使用美白、祛斑类化妆品。
  • 支持倡导消费品中化学品信息公开方面的政策。

Table 1: Skin lightening products containing mercury above the 1 ppm regulatory limit in China*

Sample No. City 城市 Place of purchase Product 有毒金属含量超的产品 Mercury 汞 (ppm)
010PRC03052012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 同仁堂医圣美白祛斑膏Tongrentang Yisheng whitening spotless cream 9755
016PRC02192012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 六味草药美白褪黑晚霜(美白靓肤二合一套装)Liuwei Caoyao Night Cream (Whitening Two in one set) 8436
017PRC02192012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 纤迪回春素祛斑1号(纤迪套装祛) Qian Di Freckle RemovingSet NO.1 3873
018PRC02192012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 纤迪回春素祛斑2号(纤迪套装祛斑)Qian Di Freckle Removing Set NO.2 2204
021PRC02192012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 一枝春同仁药草中药美白祛斑精华霜 YIZHICHUN Tongren Yaocao herb Whitening and Freckle Removing Cream 7020
032PRC03072012 北京Beijing 官园批发市场(Guanyuan Wholesale market) 一枝春同仁药草中药美白祛斑日霜 YIZHICHUN Tongren Yaocao Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 9155
033PRC03072012 北京Beijing 官园批发市场(Guanyuan Wholesale market) 一枝春同仁药草中药美白祛斑晚霜 YIZHICHUN Tongren Yaocao Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream 8977
036PRC03072012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 医圣美白祛斑日霜 SHENGYI Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 6517
037PRC03072012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 医圣美白祛斑晚霜 SHENGYI Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream 3375
038PRC03072012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 藏药祛斑美容日霜 ZHANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 15278
039PRC03072012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 藏药祛斑美容晚霜 ZHANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream 17134
040PRC03072012 北京Beijing 东方天作商城(East Tianzuo Mall) 藏药斑立消美容膏 ZANGYAO BANLIXIAO Beauty Cream 13700
041PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜 TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 9342
042PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜 TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 7156
043PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 斑干净美白修复日霜 BANGANJING Whitening and Repair Day Cream 9719
044PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 斑干净强力祛斑晚霜 BANGANJING Whitening and Repair Night Cream 9987
045PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 采珂色素均衡调控霜 CAIKE Pigment equilibrium Regulation Cream 4673
046PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 采珂色素均衡抑制霜 CAIKE Pigment equilibrium Inhibit Cream 4772
047PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 露兰姬娜特效美白日霜 LUJANJINA Special effects Whitening Day Cream 8070
048PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 露兰姬娜特效祛斑晚霜 LUJANJINA Special effects Freckle Removing Night Cream 7524
         
049PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 华佗·雪美婷中草药特效祛斑日霜 Hua Tuo ZUEMEITING ZHONGCAOYAO Special effects Freckle Removing Day Cream 1590
050PRC03082012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 华佗·雪美婷中草药特效祛斑晚霜Hua Tuo ZUEMEITING ZHONGCAOYAO Special effects Freckle Removing Night Cream 1180
052PRC03092012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 六味草药美白褪黑晚霜(美白靓肤二合一套装) Liuwei Caoyao Night Cream (Whitening Two in one set) 6463
053PRC03092012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 纤迪回春素祛斑1号(纤迪套装祛斑) Qian Di Freckle RemovingSet NO.1 5987
054PRC03092012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 纤迪回春素祛斑2号(纤迪套装祛斑) Qian Di Freckle Removing Set 4163
055PRC03092012 北京Beijing 天意新商城,阜成门外大街259号(Tianyi Market ) 一枝春同仁药草中药美白祛斑精华霜 YIZHICHUN Tongren Yaocao herb Whitening and Freckle Removing Cream 7095
056PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 露兰姬娜特效美白日霜 LUJANJINA Special effects Whitening Day Cream 9615
057PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 露兰姬娜特效祛斑晚霜 LUJANJINA Special effects Freckle Removing Night Cream 9758
058PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 采珂色素均衡调控霜 CAIKE Pigment equilibrium Regulation Cream 5620
059PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 采珂色素均衡抑制霜 CAIKE Pigment equilibrium Inhibit Cream 5564
060PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜 TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 8194
061PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场(Beijing Huilongguan North Market) 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜 TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 8648
080PRC03082012 盘锦Panjin 盘锦市双台子区食品批发一条街(邓双利百货) Dengshuangli Department store,Wholesale food Street,Shuangtaizi District, Panjin 女人花美肌素祛斑霜WOMEN OF FLOWER Speckle removing cream 3694
120PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=14364676320 云南白药美白祛斑晚霜(云南白药美颜祛斑套装)White-Drug Whitening Spots-removing Night Cream 7060
122PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=14454800034 御美春大长今美白滋润日霜(御美春大长今美白家族亮肤三合一)Yu Mei Chun Da Chang Jin whitening day cream 3175
123PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=14454800034 御美春大长今特效祛斑晚霜(御美春大长今美白家族亮肤三合一)Yu Mei Chun Da Chang Jin effects freckle night cream 4867
126PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=8365324548 佳美人美白霜(白瓶)Miss Beauty whitening cream 92
127PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=7541085108 姿美惠子嫩肤抽色霜 SPECIAL BEAUTY Tendering & Fading Cream 8214
163PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 雅思丹 美白祛斑霜 YASIDAN Whitening Spot-removing Cream 20776
164PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 白棉花 多效美白睡眠霜 WHITE COTTON Whitening Sleeping Cream 9158
166PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 白棉花 斑根段膏 WHITE COTTON Spot Never Return Cream 13289
167PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 采妮雅 特效强力祛斑套装A# CAINIYA Texiao Qiangli Qunban Taozhuang A 3217
168PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 采妮雅 特效强力祛斑套装B# CAINIYA Texiao Qiangli Qunban Taozhuang B 2418
169PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 采妮雅 生物核酸速效增白祛斑王CAINIYA Quick Spot-removing Cream 1232
170PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 思丽达 祛斑套装强力祛斑霜SRLIDA Spot-removing Cream 1307
171PRC03132012 重庆Chongqing 鸿源美发美容用品公司杨家坪九龙商城负一层Hongyuan Hair&Beauty Products Co.,Ltd, Yangjiaping Jiulong Mall, Chongqing 思丽达 祛斑套装修复巩固霜 SRLIDA Special Care Cream 1015
211PRC03212012 北京Beijing 天意新商场Tianyixi Market, Beijing 六味草药美白褪黑晚霜Liu Wei Cao Yao Whiteing Night Cream 7826
244PRC03092012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场Chengbei Market,Huilongguan ,Beijing 医颜堂斑干净强效美白祛斑王 Yi Yan Tang Ban Gan Jing effective spot removing cream 6933
245PRC03232012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场Chengbei Market,Huilongguan ,Beijing 露兰姬娜特效美白祛斑日霜LULANJINA Teixiao quban Rishuang 6424
246PRC03232012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场Chengbei Market,Huilongguan ,Beijing 露兰姬娜特效美白祛斑晚霜LULANJINA Teixiao quban Wangshuang 7121
247PRC03232012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场Chengbei Market,Huilongguan ,Beijing 采珂美白消斑色素均衡调控霜 Caike Whitening and Freckle-removing Regulation Cream 3088
248PRC03232012 北京Beijing 北京市回龙观城北市场Chengbei Market,Huilongguan ,Beijing 采珂美白消斑色素均衡抑制霜 Caike Whitening and Freckle-removing Inhibition Cream 3705
316PRC03132012 兰州Lanzhou 兰新地中海化妆品城1225号 No.1226 Lanxin dizhonghai Cosmetics Market, Lanzhou 美肤堂中草药养肤疗斑七天白美颜日霜 Miften Herb Whitening Day Cream 18
317PRC03132012 兰州Lanzhou 兰新地中海化妆品城1225号 No.1227 Lanxin dizhonghai Cosmetics Market, Lanzhou 美肤堂中草药养肤疗斑七天白美颜晚霜 Miften Herb Whitening Night Cream 4216
396PRC04032012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://detail.tmall.com/item.htm?id=8551473440&prt=1333684526241&prc=2 御春·汉方白里透红祛斑美白晚霜(御春·汉方白里透红祛斑美白两件套)YUCHUN·HANFANG BAILITOUHONG Whitening Spots-Removing Night Cream(YUCHUN·HANFANG BAILITOUHONG Whitening Repair 2-bottle Set) 7318
398PRC04032012 淘宝网www.taobao.com http://item.taobao.com/item.htm?id=8575836147 精品白如雪 嫩颜白白晚霜(精品白如雪 嫩颜白白套装)BAIRUXUE Tender and Whitening SKIN Night Cream(BAIRUXUE Tender and Whitening SKIN SET) 4715
399PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 露兰姬娜特效美白日霜(露兰姬娜特效美白祛斑套装) LUJANJINA Special effects Whitening Day Cream(LUJANJINA Special effects Whitening and Freckle-removing Set) 6128
400PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 露兰姬娜特效祛斑晚霜(露兰姬娜特效美白祛斑套装)LUJANJINA Special effects Freckle Removing Night Cream(LUJANJINA Special effects Whitening and Freckle-removing Set) 5140
401PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 伊立美七天强效增白祛斑王A号(伊立美七天强效增白套装)YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI QUBANWANG A(YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI SET) 5182
402PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 伊立美七天强效增白祛斑王B号 (伊立美七天强效增白套装) YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI QUBANWANG B(YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI SET) 6624
403PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 春之秀消斑霜1(春之秀消斑霜套装)CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBANSHUANG NO.1(CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBAN SET) 1876
404PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 春之秀消斑霜 2(春之秀消斑霜套装)CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBANSHUANG NO.2(CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBAN SET) 2317
405PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 上海靓妆服饰礼品市场Shanghai Liang zhuang Dress Present Marketing ltd 双重双能美白祛斑回春素 TENSUNG Mei bai quban huichun su 2050
408PRC04052012 哈尔滨Ha'erbin 哈尔滨市松北区中原大道8999号盛恒基生活超市Henji Life Suppermarket, No.9001 Zhongyuan Rd, Songbei District, Ha'erbin 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装)TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day and Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 386
409PRC04052012 哈尔滨Ha'erbin 哈尔滨市松北区中原大道8999号盛恒基生活超市Henji Life Suppermarket, No.9002 Zhongyuan Rd, Songbei District, Ha'erbin 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装)TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day and Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 373
410PRC04052012 哈尔滨Ha'erbin 哈尔滨市松北区哈尔滨商业大学男孩女孩化妆品Boy&Girl Cosmetics Store, Harbin commercial University, Songbei District, Harbin 医圣美白祛斑膏Yisheng Skin Lightening Cream 7348
411PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市滨江道洗刷刷化妆商品连锁店Xishuashua Cosmetic Chain Store, Binjiang Rd, Tianjin 柔柰儿 激活祛斑霜(15天见效)Flow loss Rou Nai Er Powerfully Whiten And Nourish Skin Cream 3169
412PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市滨江道洗刷刷化妆商品连锁店Xishuashua Cosmetic Chain Store, Binjiang Rd, Tianjin 藏药祛斑美容日霜(藏药祛斑美容套装)ZANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream(ZANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 9567
413PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市滨江道洗刷刷化妆商品连锁店Xishuashua Cosmetic Chain Store, Binjiang Rd, Tianjin 藏药祛斑美容晚霜(藏药祛斑美容套装)ZANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream(ZANGYAO Whitening and Freckle Removingset) 10573
414PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 纤丽 芦荟增白祛斑霜(7-15天见效)QIAN LI Lu Hui Zengbai Quban Cream 2528
415PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑日霜(回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑套装)HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Day Cream(HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Set) 6790
416PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑晚霜(回春宝典11天强效美白祛斑套装)HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Night Cream(HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Set) 5052
417PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 大长今美白家族抽色霜(大长今美白养颜家族)DACHANGJIN MEIBAI JIAZU CHOUSE CREAM(DACHANGJIN MEIBAI YANGYAN JIAZU SET) 12234
419PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装) TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 5786
420PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 天津市河西区 东江市场 Dongjiang Market, Hexi District, Tianjin 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装) TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 5943
424PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城新风路新风服装城一楼彩虹化妆品店Rainbow Cosmetics Store,Xinfeng Costume City 1st floor,Xinfeng Rd,Guancheng District Dongguan 点晶美白祛斑回春素Tensung Meibai whitening and freckle Huichun Su 2136
425PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城新风路新风服装城一楼彩虹化妆品店Rainbow Cosmetics Store,Xinfeng Costume City 1st floor,Xinfeng Rd,Guancheng District Dongguan 娇丽祛斑真白王Jiaoli Freckle removing removing true white cream 3110
426PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城新风路新风服装城一楼彩虹化妆品店Rainbow Cosmetics Store,Xinfeng Costume City 1st floor,Xinfeng Rd,Guancheng District Dongguan 柳之青韵一清斑王Liu Zhi Qing Xiaobanshuang 152
427PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城迈豪街64号店雅琪化妆品店Akei Cosmetics Store,No.64 Haomai Rd,Guancheng District Dongguan 青芝美7天速效祛斑霜 Dispel spots cream seventh 4081
428PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城迈豪街64号店雅琪化妆品店Akei Cosmetics Store,No.64 Haomai Rd,Guancheng District, Dongguan 韵牌祛斑霜Yun Pai Speckls Removed In 20 days 4007
429PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城迈豪街64号店雅琪化妆品店Akei Cosmetics Store,No.64 Haomai Rd,Guancheng District, Dongguan 蓉贵妃大清药王美白祛斑晚霜Rongguifei Whiten and dispel the spot late Cream 30570
430PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城迈豪街欧莱雅化妆品店L'OREAL Cosmetics Store,No.64 Haomai Rd,Guancheng District, Dongguan 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装 TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 8541
431PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 东莞莞城迈豪街欧莱雅化妆品店L'OREAL Cosmetics Store,No.64 Haomai Rd,Guancheng District, Dongguan 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装) TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 8450
433PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 六月雪Vc嫩白素(六月雪Vc祛斑嫩白套装) June Snow white vegetarian meal (June Snow VC Que Spot tender white vegetarian meal) 853
434PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 六月雪Vc祛斑素(六月雪Vc祛斑嫩白套装)June Snow Que spot tender meal (June Snow VC Que Spot tender white vegetarian meal) 1137
435PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 由美回春素10天强力祛斑王套装A YOUMEI HUICHUNSU 10TIAN QIANGLU QUBAN WANG TAOZHUANG A 701
436PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 由美回春素10天强力祛斑王套装B YOUMEI HUICHUNSU 11TIAN QIANGLU QUBAN WANG TAOZHUANG B 888
437PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 斑点清强效型日霜(斑点清套装) Anti-Pigment Day Cream (Anti-Pigment Suit) 16598
438PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 斑点清巩固型晚霜(斑点清套装) Anti-Pigment Night Cream (Anti-Pigment Suit) 17918
439PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 白大夫特效美白消斑日霜(白大夫天下无斑靓白净克斑组合)Doctor Bai Texiao Meibai Xiaoban Day Cream(Doctor Bai TIAN XIA WU BAN Jingbai Keban Set) 7704
440PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 白大夫特效美白消斑晚霜(白大夫天下无斑靓白净克斑组合)Doctor Bai Texiao Meibai Xiaoban Night Cream(Doctor Bai TIAN XIA WU BAN Jingbai Keban Set) 7415
442PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 新依祈素白里透红祛斑霜(新依祈素白里透红祛斑美白二合一套装)Xin Yi Qi Su BAI LI TOU HONG Qu Spot Cream(Xin Yi Qi Su BAI LI TOU HONGQu spot+beautiful white cream) 21710
445PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 安徽合肥市城隍庙化妆品市场 歆姿祛斑霜(歆姿白里透红二合一无暇臻白套装)XIN ZI QUBAN Cream (XIN ZI BAI LI TOU HONG ER HE YI WU XIA ZHEN BAI SET) 11979
453PRC04052012 上海Shanghai 七浦路服装批发市场 Qipu Rd whole market 靓邦素C霜(靓邦素白里透红3+2套装)Liang Bang Su NO.C (Liang Bang Su Red In The White [3+2}Set) 3835
456PRC04052012 上海Shanghai 七浦路服装批发市场 Qipu Rd whole market 金纯素颜美白晚霜(REDEAR白里透红金纯素颜美白二件套)Pure Shaping&Whitening Night Cream (REDEAR BAI LI TOU HONG Pure Shaping&Whitening Two-piece Set) 10157
457PRC04052012 上海Shanghai 七浦路服装批发市场 Qipu Rd whole market 点晶美白祛斑回春素Tensung Meibai Quban Huichun Su 1718
         
459PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 颜茹雪雪肌净白嫩肤晚霜(玫瑰晶润臻白养颜套装)Snow Pureskin clean white tenderizing night cream(Snow Pureskin Rose Crystal Moist White Beauty Set 43988
460PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 希波顿强效祛斑B Cibo Dun freckle removing cream B 4332
461PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 一枝春天下无斑净斑透白修复日霜Yizhichun Whitening rejuvenating Anti-speckle Day Cream 10823
462PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 采词特效美白消斑霜Caici Texiao Whitening and freckle removing cream 6150
463PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 御春美焕颜保湿日霜(三合一白里透红套装) Yuchunmei moisture day cream(Yuchunmei whitening skin 3 in 1 suit) 6165
464PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 御春美美白祛斑晚霜(三合一白里透红套装)Yuchunmei spot-removing night cream(Yuchunmei whitening skin 3 in 1 suit) 4943
466PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 大长今美白靓肤祛斑日霜(美白亮肤二合一套装)((Hong Yan Xiu Snow skin whitening 2 in 1 suit) 1664
467PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 大长今美白靓肤祛斑晚霜(美白亮肤二合一套装)(Hong Yan Xiu Snow skin whitening 2 in 1 suit) 1330
470PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 卡俐妮桃花素营养祛斑霜Kalini Peach blossom nourishing spot-removing cream 3038
471PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 采珂醋元素美白祛斑霜(醋元素美白祛斑养颜套装)Vinegar Element Whitening anti-freckle cream(Caike Vinegar Element Whitening anti-freckle cream set) 4447
472PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 采珂醋元素养颜消印霜(醋元素美白祛斑养颜套装)Vinegar Element Nourishing fade cream(Caike Vinegar Element Whitening anti-freckle cream set) 3964
473PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 卡美乐保湿增白祛斑王Kmele moisture whitening and spot-removing cream 2285
474PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 菲悦美肤嫩白日霜(菲悦美肤嫩白祛斑二合一套装)FEIYUE beauty whitening day cream (FEIYUE beauty whitening spot removing 2 in 1suit) 3393
475PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 菲悦美肤嫩白晚霜(菲悦美肤嫩白祛斑二合一套装)FEIYUE beauty whitening night cream (FEIYUE beauty whitening spot removing 2 in 1suit) 16048
477PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 金桥大市场Jinqiao whole market 美瑷春白里透红C霜(美瑷春白里透红A+C套装)Beautiful Spring Skin-whitening A cream (Beautiful Spring Skin-whitening A+C SUIT) 8873

*Note that since the XRF can only measure 12 ppm mercury, some products violating Chinese law might have been missed.

Table 2: Skin lightening products containing arsenic or lead*

Regulatory limits in China: mercury 1ppm; arsenic 10 ppm; lead 40 ppm
Regulatory limits in ASEAN: mercury 1 ppm; arsenic 5 ppm; lead 20 ppm

No. City 城市 Product 有毒金属含量超的产品 Mercury 汞 (ppm) Arsenic 砷 (ppm) Lead 铅 (ppm)
036PRC03072012 北京Beijing 医圣美白祛斑日霜 SHENGYI Whitening and Freckle Removing Day Cream 6517 185 76
037PRC03072012 北京Beijing 医圣美白祛斑晚霜 SHENGYI Whitening and Freckle Removing Night Cream 3375 233 183
120PRC03092012 淘宝网www.taobao.com 云南白药美白祛斑晚霜(云南白药美颜祛斑套装)White-Drug Whitening Spots-removing Night Cream 7060 45  
316PRC03132012 兰州Lanzhou 美肤堂中草药养肤疗斑七天白美颜日霜 Miften Herb Whitening Day Cream 18 64 190
317PRC03132012 兰州Lanzhou 美肤堂中草药养肤疗斑七天白美颜晚霜 Miften Herb Whitening Night Cream 4216 34  
394PRC04042012 北京Beijing 玉兰油三重美白修防晒乳 OLAY natural white extra UV protection moisturizer   14  
401PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 伊立美七天强效增白祛斑王A号(伊立美七天强效增白套装)YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI QUBANWANG A(YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI SET) 5182 16  
402PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 伊立美七天强效增白祛斑王B号 伊立美七天强效增白套装) YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI QUBANWANG B(YILIMEI QITIAN QIANGXIAO ZENGBAI SET) 6624 20  
403PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 春之秀消斑霜1(春之秀消斑霜套装)CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBANSHUANG NO.1(CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBAN SET) 1876 25 37
404PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 春之秀消斑霜2(春之秀消斑霜套装)CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBANSHUANG NO.2(CHUNZHIXIU XIAOBAN SET) 2317 21 21
405PRC04042012 上海Shanghai 双重双能美白祛斑回春素 TENSUNG Mei bai quban huichun su 2050 27 35
408PRC04052012 哈尔滨Ha'erbin 天下无斑美白祛斑日霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装)TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day and Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 386 68 533
409PRC04052012 哈尔滨Ha'erbin 天下无斑美白祛斑晚霜(天下无斑美白祛斑套装)TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Day and Night Cream(TIANXIAWUBAN Whitening and Freckle Removing Set) 373 97 609
411PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 柔柰儿 激活祛斑霜(15天见效)Flow loss Rou Nai Er Powerfully Whiten And Nourish Skin Cream 3169 72 90
415PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑日霜(回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑套装)HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Day Cream(HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Set) 6790 59  
416PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 回春宝典10天强效美白祛斑晚霜(回春宝典11天强效美白祛斑套装)HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Night Cream(HUICHUN BAODIAN Shitian Qiangxiao Meibai Quban Set) 5052 53 23
417PRC04062012 天津Tianjin 大长今美白家族抽色霜(大长今美白养颜家族)DACHANGJIN MEIBAI JIAZU CHOUSE CREAM(DACHANGJIN MEIBAI YANGYAN JIAZU SET) 12234 15  
423PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 高佧迪去斑改肤膏GakadiFreckle Romoving Cream   14 76
424PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 点晶美白祛斑回春素Tensung Meibai whitening and freckle Huichun Su 2136 18 23
429PRC04042012 东莞Dongguan 蓉贵妃大清药王美白祛斑晚霜Rongguifei Whiten and dispel the spot late Cream 30570 27  
433PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 六月雪Vc嫩白素(六月雪Vc祛斑嫩白套装) June Snow white vegetarian meal (June Snow VC Que Spot tender white vegetarian meal) 853 15 38
434PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 六月雪Vc祛斑素(六月雪Vc祛斑嫩白套装)June Snow Que spot tender meal (June Snow VC Que Spot tender white vegetarian meal) 1137 23 44
435PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 由美回春素10天强力祛斑王套装A YOUMEI HUICHUNSU 10TIAN QIANGLU QUBAN WANG TAOZHUANG A 701 13 33
437PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 斑点清强效型日霜(斑点清套装) Anti-Pigment Day Cream (Anti-Pigment Suit) 16598 106  
438PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 斑点清巩固型晚霜(斑点清套装) Anti-Pigment Night Cream (Anti-Pigment Suit) 17918 151  
442PRC04052012 合肥Hefei 新依祈素白里透红祛斑霜(新依祈素白里透红祛斑美白二合一套装)Xin Yi Qi Su BAI LI TOU HONG Qu Spot Cream(Xin Yi Qi Su BAI LI TOU HONGQu spot+beautiful white cream) 21710 18  
456PRC04052012 上海Shanghai 金纯素颜美白晚霜(REDEAR白里透红金纯素颜美白二件套)Pure Shaping&Whitening Night Cream (REDEAR BAI LI TOU HONG Pure Shaping&Whitening Two-piece Set) 10157 14  
457PRC04052012 上海Shanghai 点晶美白祛斑回春素Tensung Meibai Quban Huichun Su 1718 16 24
459PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 颜茹雪雪肌净白嫩肤晚霜(玫瑰晶润臻白养颜套装)Snow Pureskin clean white tenderizing night cream(Snow Pureskin Rose Crystal Moist White Beauty Set 43988 41  
466PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 大长今美白靓肤祛斑日霜(美白亮肤二合一套装)((Hong Yan Xiu Snow skin whitening 2 in 1 suit) 1664 41 41
467PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 大长今美白靓肤祛斑晚霜(美白亮肤二合一套装)(Hong Yan Xiu Snow skin whitening 2 in 1 suit) 1330 36 61
468PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 雪美婷中草药特效祛斑日霜Xuemeiting chinese herbs special effect spot-removing day cream (Xuemeiting chinese herbs special effect spot-removing suit)   26 67
469PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 雪美婷中草药特效祛斑晚霜Xuemeiting chinese herbs special effect spot-removing night cream (Xuemeiting chinese herbs special effect spot-removing suit)     59
470PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 卡俐妮桃花素营养祛斑霜Kalini Peach blossom nourishing spot-removing cream 3038 25  
473PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 卡美乐保湿增白祛斑王Kmele moisture whitening and spot-removing cream 2285 47 60
474PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 菲悦美肤嫩白日霜(菲悦美肤嫩白祛斑二合一套装)FEIYUE beauty whitening day cream (FEIYUE beauty whitening spot removing 2 in 1suit) 3393 52 48
475PRC04062012 南京Nanjing 菲悦美肤嫩白晚霜(菲悦美肤嫩白祛斑二合一套装)FEIYUE beauty whitening night cream (FEIYUE beauty whitening spot removing 2 in 1suit) 16048 35  

*Note that since the XRF can only measure 12 ppm mercury, lead, and arsenic, some products violating Chinese law or the ASEAN standard might have been missed.

About the metals

金属元素Metal 主要危害Impacts
Mercury (Hg) 根据世界卫生组织的资料显示,化妆品中的无机汞会造成肾功能损害、皮疹、皮肤变色、结疤、焦虑、抑郁症、精神病、周围神经病变、抗感染能力降低等1According to the World Health Organization, the inorganic mercury contained in some skin-lightening products can cause kidney damage, skin rashes, skin discoloration, scarring, anxiety, depression, psychosis, peripheral neuropathy, and reduction of resistance to infections.2
Arsenic (As) 砷作用于神经系统、刺激造血器官,长期接触砷会引发细胞中毒和 毛细管中毒、高血压、神经机能障碍,还有可能诱发恶性肿瘤3。人 体暴露实验显示,越来越多的关于肺、肝、心脏的疾病、肺癌以及 婴儿夭折与砷的接触有关4。儿童智力低下可能与砷的暴露有关5Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen with links to lung, skin, and bladder cancers.6 Arsenic exposure is correlated with lower IQ in children.7
Lead (Pb) 铅是已知神经毒素,会影响人的感官、行动、认知和行为,包括学 习障碍、难以集中注意力等;还可能影响儿童协调、视觉、空间和 语言能力,以及贫血8。幼年接触铅所造成的健康危害会持续到青少 年和成年阶段9。美国疾病控制和预防中心研究指出,儿童血液中的 铅含量安全值应该为零10,对铅的接触不存在安全阈值11Lead is a well-known neurotoxicant with no safe level of exposure. 1112 The harms from childhood lead exposure are irreversible and persist into adolescence and adulthood.13 Lead impacts include learning disabilities; attention deficits; disorders in a child’s coordination, visual, spatial and language skills, and anemia.14
[1] World Health Organization (2011) Mercury in skin-lightening products http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/mercury_flyer.pdf [2] World Health Organization (2011) Mercury in skin-lightening products http://www.who.int/ipcs/assessment/public_health/mercury_flyer.pdf [3] Chen Y, Parvez F, Gamble M, Islan T, Ahmed A, Argos M, Graziano JH, Ahsan H (2009) Arsenic exposure at low-to-moderate levels and skin lesions, arsenic metabolism, neurological functions, and biomarkers for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases: review of recent findings from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) in Bangladesh, Toxic ApplPharmacol 239:184 - 192 [4] States JC, Barchowsky A, Cartwright IL, Reichard JF, Futscher BW, Lantz RC (2011) Arsenic toxicology: Translating between experimental models and human pathology, Environ Health Perspect doi:10.1289/ehp.1103441 http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/citationList.action?articleURI=info%3Adoi%2F10.1289%2Fehp.1103441 [5] Dong J, Su SY (2009) The association between arsenic and children’s intelligence: a meta-analysis, Biol Trace Elem Res 129:88 - 93 [6] Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1992) Toxicological profile for arsenic, US Public Health Service http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/TP.asp?id=22&tid=3 [7] Dong J, Su SY (2009) The association between arsenic and children’s intelligence: a meta analysis, Biol Trace Elem Res 129:88 – 93 [8] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Air Quality Criteria for Lead (September 29, 2006); WHO (2004) Burden of disease attributable to selected environmental factors and injuries among Europe’s children and adolescents http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/9241591900/en/index.html. Review of Scientific Information on Lead (2008), developed by UNEP in response to Governing Council Decisions 23/9 and 22/4 (draft November 2008) [9] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Air Quality Criteria for Lead (September 29, 2006) [10] US Centers for Disease Control (2005). Prevention of lead poisoning in young children: a statement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA USA: CDC; 2005, www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/prevleadpoisoning.pdf; (2002) Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2002. www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/casemanagement/casemanage_main.htm [11] Basic Information about Lead in Drinking Water http://water.epa.gov/drink/contaminants/basicinformation/lead.cfm [12] US Centers for Disease Control (2005). Prevention of lead poisoning in young children: a statement by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Atlanta, GA USA: CDC; 2005, www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/publications/prevleadpoisoning.pdf; (2002) Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2002. www.cdc.gov/nceh/lead/casemanagement/casemanage_main.htm [13] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Air Quality Criteria for Lead (September 29, 2006) [14] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2006) Air Quality Criteria for Lead (September 29, 2006); WHO (2004) Burden of disease attributable to selected environmental factors and injuries among Europe’s children and adolescents http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/9241591900/en/index.html. Review of Scientific Information on Lead (2008), developed by UNEP in response to Governing Council Decisions 23/9 and 22/4 (draft November 2008)

This activity has been produced with the financial assistance of various donors including the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation, SSNC. The views herein shall not necessarily be taken to reflect the official opinion of SSNC.

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